Python Programming Help - Python Tkinter Tutorial

Tkinter Tutorial



Hi Everyone!


Welcome to my Course Python Tkinter Tutorial


In this course, we are going to learn how to do GUI in python.


I am a python developer for a long time, and I’m so excited to share my knowledge of this awesome programming Language.


This course is designed for both beginner and professional, and also helpful for everyone who wish to learn the GUI Programming in Python Tkinter.


I hope you’ll join me on this journey to learn Python with the python: Getting started courses at CodersArts.


In this series of python learning. We will discuss the following topics


  • What is a Graphical User Interface (GUI) in Python?

  • Libraries use in Python Tkinter

  • What is Tkinter?

  • Fundamentals of Tkinter Using Python

  • Tkinter Widgets in Python

  • Geometry Management in Python

  • Organization of Layouts and Widgets in Python Tkinter

  • Binding Functions in Python


What is a Graphical User Interface (GUI) in Python?


Stands for "Graphical User Interface" and is pronounced "gooey." It is a user interface that includes graphical elements, such as windows, icons and buttons. The term was created in the 1970s to distinguish graphical interfaces from text-based ones, such as command line interfaces. However, today nearly all digital interfaces are GUIs.


The first commercially available GUI, called "PARC," was developed by Xerox. It was used by the Xerox 8010 Information System, which was released in 1981. After Steve Jobs saw the interface during a tour at Xerox, he had his team at Apple develop an operating system with a similar design. Apple's GUI-based OS was included with the Macintosh, which was released in 1984. Microsoft released their first GUI-based OS, Windows 1.0, in 1985.


If you want to read more about Graphical Use Interface than go to the this link


Python Libraries To Create Graphical User Interfaces


Top python Libraries which is use by most of GUI developer is:


  • Kivy

  • Python

  • QTwxPython

  • Tkinter

To read basic about these Libraries first we know about "Tkinter".


What is Tkinter?


Tkinter is an inbuilt Python libraries used to create simple GUI apps. It is the most commonly used module for GUI apps in the Python.


To understand it clearly first we will see working of small code in which we will print hello world:


Example:


"""Hello World application for Tkinter"""

from tkinter import *


from tkinter.ttk import *


root = Tk()


label = Label(root, text="Hello World")


label.pack()


root.mainloop()



First line used to import module tkinter from python library

In second line tkinter.ttk used to import ttk library with tkinter to add extra features.

pack() used to pack the content so user can see it.

The last line calls the mainloop function. This function calls the endless loop of the window, so the window will wait for any user interaction till we close it.


Tkinter Widgets


Widgets are something like elements. There are different types of widgets which used in Tkinter


  • Label Widget

  • Button Widget

  • Entry Widget

  • Radiobutton Widget

  • Radiobutton Widget (Alternate)

  • Checkbutton Widget

  • Scale Widget: Horizontal

  • Scale Widget: Vertical

  • Text Widget

  • LabelFrame Widget

  • Canvas Widget

  • Listbox Widget

  • Menu Widget

  • OptionMenu Widget


Here below we discuss complete details about all widgets- how will use it and how it works?


Label Widget


A Label widget shows text to the user. Labels are used to create texts and images and all of that:


Example:


import tkinter

parent_widget = tkinter.Tk()

label_widget = tkinter.Label(parent_widget, text="A Label")

label_widget.pack()

tkinter.mainloop()

Output:


what is label in tkinter

Button Widget


To add a button in your application, this widget is used.


Example:


import tkinter

window = tkinter.Tk()

button_widget = tkinter.Button(window,text="A Button")

button_widget.pack()

tkinter.mainloop()


Output:


what is button in tkinter?

Entry Widget


An Entry widget gets text input from the user.


Example:


import tkinter

window = tkinter.Tk()

entry_widget = tkinter.Entry(window)

entry_widget.insert(0, "Type your text here")

entry_widget.pack()

tkinter.mainloop()


Output:



Radio button Widget


A Radiobutton lets you put buttons together, so that only one of them can be clicked. If one button is on and the user clicks another, the first is set to off.


Example:


import tkinter

window = tkinter.Tk()

v = tkinter.IntVar()

v.set(1) # need to use v.set and v.get to set and get the value of this variable

radiobutton_widget1 = tkinter.Radiobutton(window,text="Radiobutton 1",variable=v,value=1)

radiobutton_widget2 = tkinter.Radiobutton(window,text="Radiobutton 2",variable=v, value=2)

radiobutton_widget1.pack()

radiobutton_widget2.pack()

tkinter.mainloop()


Output:




Radiobutton Widget -Alternate


You can display a Radiobutton without the dot indicator


Example:


import tkinter

window = tkinter.Tk()

v = tkinter.IntVar()

v.set(1)

radiobutton_widget1 = tkinter.Radiobutton(window,

text="Radiobutton 1",

variable=v, value=1,

indicatoron=False)

radiobutton_widget2 = tkinter.Radiobutton(window,

text="Radiobutton 2",

variable=v, value=2,

indicatoron=False)

radiobutton_widget1.pack()

radiobutton_widget2.pack()

tkinter.mainloop()


Output:



Checkbutton Widget


A Checkbutton records on/off or true/false status


Example:


import tkinter

window = tkinter.Tk()

checkbutton_widget = tkinter.Checkbutton(window,

text="Checkbutton")

checkbutton_widget.select()

checkbutton_widget.pack()

tkinter.mainloop()


Output:



Scale Widget: Horizontal


Use a Scale widget when you want a slider that goes from one value to another.


Example:


import tkinter

window = tkinter.Tk()

scale_widget = tkinter.Scale(window, from_=0, to=100,

orient=tkinter.HORIZONTAL)

scale_widget.set(25)

scale_widget.pack()

tkinter.mainloop()


Output:




Scale Widget: Vertical


A Scale widget can be vertical (up and down).


Example:


import tkinter

window = tkinter.Tk()

scale_widget = tkinter.Scale(window, from_=0, to=100,

orient=tkinter.VERTICAL)

scale_widget.set(25)

scale_widget.pack()

tkinter.mainloop()


Output:



Text Widget in Python Tkinter


Use to show large areas of text.


Example:


import tkinter

window = tkinter.Tk()

text_widget = tkinter.Text(window,

width=20, height=3)

text_widget.insert(tkinter.END,

"Text Widgetn20 characters widen3 lines high")

text_widget.pack()

tkinter.mainloop()


Output:




LabelFrame Widget


The LabelFrame acts as a parent widget for other widgets, displaying them with a title and an outline. LabelFrame has to have a child widget before you can see it.


Example:


import tkinter

window = tkinter.Tk()

labelframe_widget = tkinter.LabelFrame(window,

text="LabelFrame")

label_widget=tkinter.Label(labelframe_widget,

text="Child widget of the LabelFrame")

labelframe_widget.pack(padx=10, pady=10)

label_widget.pack()

tkinter.mainloop()


Output:



Canvas Widget


You use a Canvas widget to draw on. It supports different drawing methods.

Example:


import tkinter

window = tkinter.Tk()

canvas_widget = tkinter.Canvas(window,bg="blue",width=100,height= 50)

canvas_widget.pack()

tkinter.mainloop()


Output:


Listbox Widget


Listbox lets the user choose from one set of options or displays a list of items.


Example:


import tkinter

window = tkinter.Tk()

listbox_entries = ["Entry 1", "Entry 2",

"Entry 3", "Entry 4"]

listbox_widget = tkinter.Listbox(window)

for entry in listbox_entries:

listbox_widget.insert(tkinter.END, entry)

listbox_widget.pack()

tkinter.mainloop()


Output:

Menu Widget


The Menu widget can create a menu bar.


Example:


import tkinter

window = tkinter.Tk()

def menu_callback():

print("I'm in the menu callback!")

def submenu_callback():

print("I'm in the submenu callback!")

menu_widget = tkinter.Menu(window)

submenu_widget = tkinter.Menu(menu_widget, tearoff=False)

submenu_widget.add_command(label="Submenu Item1",

command=submenu_callback)

submenu_widget.add_command(label="Submenu Item2",

command=submenu_callback)

menu_widget.add_cascade(label="Item1", menu=submenu_widget)

menu_widget.add_command(label="Item2",

command=menu_callback)

menu_widget.add_command(label="Item3",

command=menu_callback)

window.config(menu=menu_widget)

tkinter.mainloop()


Output:


OptionMenu Widget


The OptionMenu widget lets the user choose from a list of options


Example:


import tkinter

window = tkinter.Tk()

control_variable = tkinter.StringVar(window)

OPTION_TUPLE = ("Option 1", "Option 2", "Option 3")

optionmenu_widget = tkinter.OptionMenu(window,control_variable, *OPTION_TUPLE)

optionmenu_widget.pack()

tkinter.mainloop()


Output:



Geometry Management in Python


Tkinter possess three layout managers.

  • pack

  • grid

  • place


Example


import tkinter as tk


root = tk.Tk()


w = tk.Label(root, text="Red Sun", bg="red", fg="white")

w.pack(fill=tk.X)

w = tk.Label(root, text="Green Grass", bg="green", fg="black")

w.pack(fill=tk.X)

w = tk.Label(root, text="Blue Sky", bg="blue", fg="white")

w.pack(fill=tk.X)


tk.mainloop()


Output:



Binding Function in python


It used to bind the event by mouse or keyboard to perform specific action


Example:


#!/usr/bin/python3

# write tkinter as Tkinter to be Python 2.x compatible

from tkinter import *

def hello(event):

print("Single Click, Button-l")

def quit(event):

print("Double Click, so let's stop")

import sys; sys.exit()


widget = Button(None, text='Mouse Clicks')

widget.pack()

widget.bind('<Button-1>', hello)

widget.bind('<Double-1>', quit)

widget.mainloop()


Output:


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